• 教學科研
    【皖樅高中學?!扛咧杏⒄Z強調句講解及專練
    來源: 發布時間:2015-03-29

    強調是有效地進行思想交流的重要手段之一。人們在交際過程中,為了使自己的思想能被對方恰當的理解,必須加強語氣,突出重要的內容,增加對比效果與感情色彩,這時就會用到強調。強調常見的表現形式如下:

     

    一、強調句型

    為了強調句子的某一成分(通常是主語、賓語、或狀語),常用強調句型:It is (was) +被強調部分+that(who)… 表示強調的 it 在句子中作主句的主語;被強調部分可以是主語,賓語,表語或狀語;強調的主語如果是人,that和who都可用。如:

    Last night I saw a film in the Youth Palace.          

    強調主語:It was I that (or: who) saw a film in the Youth Palace last night.

    強調賓語:It was a film that I saw in the Youth Palace last night.

    強調地點狀語:It was in the Youth Palace that I saw a film last night.

    強調時間狀語:It was last night that I saw a film in the Youth Palace.

    另外,還要注意下面幾點:

    1)在強調主語時,that 后的謂語動詞要與被強調者保持人稱和數的一致。如:

    It is I who am a teacher.

    2)即使被強調的主語是復數,主句中的謂語動詞也用單數。如:

    It is they who often help me with my lessons.

    3)在強調時間、地點、原因或方式狀語時,不能用when,where,why或 how ,而要用that 。如:

    It was because her mother was ill that she didn't go with us.

    It was only when I reread his poems recently that I began to appreciate their beauty. 

    It was the house that the murder happened.

    4)在強調not … until 結構中由 until 短語(或從句)表示的時間狀語時,要用固定的強調句型:It is(was) not until ...that... 注意此時原句的not…until要變成not until ,that 從句中的謂語動詞要用肯定式。如:

    My father didn't come home until 12 o'clock last night.

    It was not until 12 o'clock last night that my father came home.

    I didn’t realize she was a famous film star until she took off her dark glasses.

    It was not until she took off her dark glasses that I realized she was a famous film star.

    5)原句的謂語動詞如果是現在或將來的各種時態,用It is…that (who)…;如果原句謂語動詞是過去各種時態,則用It was… that(who)…

    6)在強調一般疑問句中的某一成分時,主句要用一般疑問句的語序。that后面的原句其余部分在移走了被強調部分后詞序及詞形都不可以改動。如:

    Did this happen in Beijing?

    Was it in Beijing that this happened?

    7)特殊疑問句中只有疑問詞可以強調,其強調結構是“疑問詞+is (was) it that...? " 如:

    Where were you born?

    Where was it that you were born?

    8)強調句型容易和句型It is/was+名詞+that名詞從句混淆。如果把構成強調句型結構的詞It is (was) … that(who)… 去掉,被強調部分歸位后,應該能夠形成一個完整 的句子(這也是判斷是否是強調句型的方法)。但后者的It is/was…that 是不可去掉的,否則that前的名詞就找不到位置,原句也不再成立,如下面這個句子如去掉It is/was…that就不再完整:

    It was the rule of the school that the pupils should wear their school uniforms.

        強調句型還容易跟It is/was+形容詞+that名詞從句這一句型混淆。如:It is clear (obvious, true, possible, certain....) that ..... 該句型中it 是形式主語,真正的主語是that 引導的主語從句,常譯為”清楚(顯然, 真的, 肯定…)”是主語從句最常見的一種結構。   

    It is very clear that he’s round and tall like a tree.   

    That he’s round and tall like a tree is very clear.

    9)強調句可以用作賓語從句。如:

    He told me that it was because he was late for class that he was punished.

    I really can’t remember where it was that I first met the man.

    10)強調句型可有如下變體:It is/was變成“情態動詞+be”。如:

    It may be my bike that he is riding.

    It must have been the manager that spoke to you.

    11)與疑問詞連用構成特殊疑問句和感嘆句。如:

    Whom was it that Mr. Smith saw in the park yesterday?

    Why is it that silver is not widely used as a conductor?

    What a beautiful picture it is that you have drawn!

    12)被強調的名詞或代詞可帶有一個定語從句。如:

    Was it Bill, who plays football well, that helped the blind man cross the road?

    It was in the school, where(or:in which) I once studied, that we hold a party.

    Was it in the house, which we visited last year,  that the murder happened?

    二、用助動詞do或其變化形式does,did來強調句中謂語動詞,用來加強陳述句和祈使句的語氣,譯作“的確”,“一定”,“確實”。如:

    He did send you a letter last week. 

    We’re pleased that she does intend to come.

    Do write to me when you get there.

    三、用倒裝句來加強語氣。如:

    Only in this way can we solve this problem.

    Never will China be the first to use nuclear weapons. 

    Proud as these nobles are, they are afraid to see me.
    In front of the farmhouse there sat a little boy.

    四、用形容詞, 副詞或者否定詞very, never, ever, even, still , single,simply, just ,only, too等來表示強調。如:

    At that very monent he heard a cry for help.

    I can't even remember the name of that old friend of mine.

    Not a single person has been in the office this afternoon.

    You are the only person here who can speak Chinese.

    This is just what I wanted.

    五、用what引導的名詞性從句或wh-疑問詞+ever構成的復合詞引導的狀語從句來強調從句中的主語,賓語或狀語等。如:

    What Mary does every day is to give piano lessons. 

    Whenever you come to me, you can come right in.

    六、反復使用同一個詞來加強語氣 ,可反復使用詞的一般是動詞, 副詞,形容詞和名詞。如:

    He worked (and) worked until late at night.

    They walked for miles and miles.

    I'll never, never forget you.

    七、 用“at all”,“in every way”,“in no way”,“by all means”,“by no means”,“only too”,“all too”,“but too”,“in heaven”,“in the world”,“in hell”,“on earth”,“under the sun”等來加強疑問或否定語氣。如:

    Where in the world did you go just now ?

    What on earth are you doing?

    She's not in the least angry with me.

    The clerk is not at all fit for the post.

    八、用感嘆句來表示強烈的感情,突出說話人的情感。如:

    How interesting a story it is!

    九、 用反身代詞表示強調 。如:

    I myself will see her off at the station.

    You can do it well yourself.

    十、用破折號、黑體字也可以表示強調,加強語氣:

    It's because of hard work—ten years of hard work.

    強調句型練習題

    1. My bike is missing. I can't find ____ anywhere.     A. one    B. ones    C. it    D. that

     

    2. —— Who's that?

    ____ Professor Li.       A. That's    B. It's    C. He's    D. This's

     

    3. ____ was Jane that I saw in the library this morning.    A. It         B. He    C. She    D. That

     

    4. —— Have you ever seen a whale alive?

    Yes, I've seen ____.     A. that    B. it      C. such    D. one

     

    5. The color of my coat is different from ____ of yours.    A. this    B. that    C. it    D. one 

     

    6. ____ will do you good to do some exercise every morning.   A. It       B. There       C. Those     D. You

     

    7. We think ____ our duty to pay taxes to our government.    A. that    B. this    C. its    D. it

     

    8. The climate of Shanghai is better than ____ of Nanjing.    A. that    B. it      C. which    D. what

     

    9. ____ four years since I joined the Army.     A. There was    B. There is    C. It was    D. It is

     

    10. How long ____ to finish the work?     A. you'll take    B. you'll take it    C. will it take you     D. will take you

     

    11. It was through Xiao Li ____ I got to know Xiao Wang.    A. who    B. whom    C. how    D. that

     

    12. It was in the rice fields ____ we had our league meeting.    A. where    B. that    C. in which    D. on which

     

    13. It was on October 1st ____ new China was founded.    A. which    B. when    C. as    D. that

     

    14. Was it because he was ill ____ he asked for leave?   A. and    B. that    C. that's    D. so

     

    15. Mary speaks in a low voice; ____ is difficult to know what she is saying. 

    A. it    B. that    C. so    D. she

     

    16. It was ____ I met Mr. Green in Shanghai.

    A. many years that     B. many years before

    C. many years ago that   D. many years when

    17. ____ is not everybody ____ can draw so well.

    A. It, all           B. It, that    C. There, who    D. There, that

     

    18. So ____ that no fish can live in it.

    A. shallow is the lake   B. the lake is shallow

    C. shallow the lake is   D. is the lake shallow

    參考答案

    1~5 CBADB     6~10 ADADC     11~15 DBDBA     16~18 CBA

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