• 教學科研
    【皖樅高中學?!扛咧杏⒄Z語法講解--虛擬語氣
    來源: 發布時間:2015-03-28

    1. 語氣的定義和種類

    (1)語氣的定義

    語氣是動詞的一種形式,它表示說話人對某一行為或事情的看法和態度。

    (2)語氣的種類

    A. 陳述語氣

    表示動作或狀態是現實的、確定的或符合事實的,用于陳述句、疑問句和某些感嘆句。

    We are not ready.

    Did it rain all day yesterday?

    What a fine day today!

    B. 祈使語氣

    表使說話人的建議、請求、邀請、命令等。

    Be careful.

    Don’t forget to close the window.

    Open the door, please.

    C. 虛擬語氣

    表使動作或狀態不是客觀存在的事實,而是說話人的主觀愿望、假設或推測等。

    2. 虛擬語氣

    (1)辨別if 引導真實條件句和if引導的虛擬條件句的區別

    If he has time, he will go with us.= Probably he has time and will go with us.

    If he had time, he would go with us.=But in fact he has no time.

    (2)虛擬條件句中主句和從句的謂與動詞構成形式如下表

     

    if條件句中的謂與動詞

    主句的謂與動詞

    與現在的事實相反

     

    1. 行為動詞用did 形式

    2. be動詞用were

    should

    would

    could   + 動詞原形

    might

    與過去的事實相反

     

    had + done

    should

    would

    could   + have + done

    might

    與將來的事實相反

    1. 行為動詞用did

    2. should + 動詞原形

    3. were to + 動詞原形

    should

    would

    could   + 動詞原形

    might

    (3)混合時間的虛擬語氣

    如果條件句中的動作和主句的動作不是同時發生,主句和從句的謂語動詞的形式應分別根據各自所表示的時間加以調整。

    1. If I had received the passport yesterday, I would start today.

    2. If he had telephoned me last night, I would see him now.

    3. If he had followed the doctor’s advice, he would be all right now.

    4. If China had not been liberated, the working people would still be leading a miserable life.

    5. If he had listened to me, he ______ be in such trouble now.

    A. haven’t          B. would not

    C. had not          D. would haven’t

    答案:5. B

    (4)should/ could / might/ ought to + have done 表示“過去本應該/可以做而實際上卻沒做”

    needn’t have done 表示“過去沒必要作而實際上做了”

    1. Wang Fang _______ college last year. Unfortunately, he couldn’t take the examinations because of a sudden illness.

    A. could go            B did go

    C. could have gone          D. must have gone

    2. The plant is dead. I _______ it more water.

    A. will give               B. would have gone

    C. must give                     D. should have gone

    3. I could have done better if I ________ more time.

    A. have had               B. had

    C. had had                D. will have had

    4. He ______ told you that.

    A. needs not have                   B. needn’t have

    C. needn’t has                         D. will have had

    5. You ________ it to your father. Why not?

        A. would tell                           B. should tell

    C. would have told                 D. should have told

    6. Even if you had not been able to come last week, you ______ us know.

    A. shall have let               B. had let

    C. have had let                 D. should have let

    答案:

    1—6 CDCBDD

    (5)虛擬語氣中的倒裝句

    如果虛擬語氣的條件從句謂語動詞中含有were, had, could, should,有時可將if省去,而將條件從句的主語置于were, had, should, could 之后。

    Had you invited us, we would have come to your party.

    Were I you, I would do more practice after class.

    Could she lend us a helping hand, she would do so.

    1. _________ he would have succeeded in the examination.

    A. Had he worked hard

    B. If he worked hard

    C. If he works hard

    D. If he has worked hard

    2. _______ it rain tomorrow, we would stay at home.

    A. Should           B. Be            C. Were               D. Will

    3. _______, he would teach us how to solve the problem.

    A. Were he here        B. Was he here

    C. If he is                  D. Is he here

    4. _________, we should be glad.

    A. Were they to arrive tomorrow

    B. They were to arrive tomorrow

    C. They would arrive tomorrow

    D. They arrive tomorrow

    5. _______ the clouds, you would find the airplane in the sky easily.

    A .Were it not for                    B. If it had not been for

    C. If it were not                     D. Had it not been for

    答案:

    1—5 AAAAA     

    (6)wish 后面的賓語從句的謂語動詞應使用虛擬語氣, 表示“可惜…;….就好了; 悔不該…; 但愿…。”

    主句謂語

    從句謂語

    wish

    時態

    謂語動詞的形式

    現在時

    表示與wish同時發生

    動詞用過去時

    be動詞用were

    過去時

    表示在wish之前發生的動作

    動詞用had done

    be用had been

    將來時

    表示在wish之后發生的動作

    動詞用would do; should do

    be 用 would be ; should be

    1. I wish I knew the key to the answer.

    2. I wish I were ten years younger.

    3. I wish that I had gone to the football match last week.

    4. I wish that you had been here yesterday.

    5. He wishes that we would visit the old school.

    6. How I wish these boys would be quiet.

    7. I wish I _______ you yesterday.

    A. saw         B. did see            C. had seen         D. were to see

    8. —Have you visited the Science Museum?

     —No, but I really wish I _______.

    A. will         B. have                C. did                  D. had

    9. I wish that the rain ______ stop.

    A. will         B. would                    C may                  D. can

    答案:

    7—9 CDB

    (7)表示命令或建議動詞suggest, insist, propose, desire, demand, request, order, command 后的賓語從句中應使用虛擬 should +動詞原形; should 不可用would 來替代; 主句所使用的動詞時態不限。

    1. The teacher insisted that every student _______ every other line.

    A. writes                   B. write               C. would write           D. wrote

    2. Jack’s father insists ______ in this hotel.

    A. not staying                  B not to stay

    C. that he not stay            D. staying not

    3. They insisted that you _______ them a quick answer.

    A. should give           B. gave

    C. must give              D. would give

    4. The guard at the gate insisted that everybody _______ the rules.

    A. obeys             B. obey         C. will obey         D. would obey

    答案:

    1—4 BCAB

    (8)suggest 為“建議去做…; 命令…”從句用should + do

    為“ 說明; 暗示”, 從句用過去時或過去完成時。

    1. The doctor suggested that I should take the medicine three times a day.

    2. The doctor suggested that my grandmother had caught a bad cold.

    3. The expression on her face suggests that she knew the secret.

    4. They suggested that  these books ______ at once.

    A. should take away

    B. would be taken away

    C. be taken away

    D. take away

    5. I suggested a meeting _______ to discuss the matter.

    A. will be held                 B. would be held

    C. should hold                 D. be held

    6. His silence at the meeting suggested ________ to your plan.

    A. didn’t agree                 B. hadn’t agreed

    C. wouldn’t agree            D. shouldn’t agree

    答案:

    4—6 CDA

    (9)insist “堅持要去做…,堅持應該去做”,從句用should + do

    為“堅持表明,堅持說/解釋”, 從句用過去時或過去完成時。

    1. She insisted that she ______ ill of him behind him, but he didn’t believe.

    A. hadn’t spoken                    B. shouldn’t speak

    C. wouldn’t speak                   D. not speak

    2. He insisted that we ______ the boy to hospital.

    A. take        B. took                C. would take            D. will take

    3. He insisted that he _______ our car.

    A. should steal                        B. would steal

    C. hadn’t stolen                      D. steal

    4. The teacher commanded that all his students ______ their homework after class.

    A. would hand in                    B. should hand in

    C. handed in                           D. might hand in

    5. The workers requested that their working conditions ______.

    A. must be improved                  B. be improved

    C. would be improved            D. were improved

    6. They required that the crops _______ harvested at once.

    A. should be                            B. be

    C. are                                    D. must be

    答案:

    1—6 BACBBA

    (10)虛擬語氣也用于表語從句和主語從句中,表示間接的命令、要求、請求、建議、決定等,主句的主語通常是suggestion, proposal, request, order, idea 等。表語從句中的謂語動詞是should +動詞原型,should 可以省略。

    1. His suggestion is that we (should) hold another meeting to discuss the question again.

    2. My advice is that we should start at five tomorrow morning.

    3. The teacher agreed to the suggestion that the students _______ two weeks to prepare for the exam.

    A. give               B. should give           

    C. be given         D. would be given

    4. Their demand is that their wages ______ increased by 20%.

    A. be           B. should             C. will be             D. must be

    5. It is suggested that the meeting ______ place at 8 o’clock.

    A. be taken                    B. take               

    C. would take                  D. should be taken

    6. It is suggested that we _______ a lot of trees along the river.

    A. should be planted        B . would plant

    C. should plant                 D. could plant

    答案:

    3—6 CABC

    (11)在主語從句中,當從句用來表示驚奇、不相信、惋惜等,從句的謂語動詞用需擬語氣形式。其謂語動詞時should + 動詞原型, 或should 省略。

    It is necessary that…

    It is important that…

    It is natural that…

    It is strange that…

    It is surprising that…

    It is impossible that…

    It is great pity that…

    It will be better that…

    It is suggested that…

    It is ordered that….

    It is demanded that…

    1. It is really surprising that the girl _______ so early.

    A. has married               B. had married

    C. marry                           D. will marry

    2. is necessary that you ______ present at the discussion.

    A. will be                         B. are

    C. should be                        D. be

    3. He has been studying so hard. It is natural that he ______ tomorrow exam.

    A. passed                      B. have passed

    C. will be                          D should pass

    4. It is demanded that the polluted water ______ clean.

    A. should make         B should be made

    C. would make          D would be made

    答案:

    1—4 CCDB

     

    【模擬試題】

    1. If there were no subjunctive mood, English _________ much easier.

    A. will be                          B. would have been

    C. could have been        D. would be

    2. If I _____ you, I’d join the army.

    A. am          B. was                 C. were                D. would be

    3. If he _______ tomorrow, he would find Mr Wang in the office.

    A. comes            B. will come        C. should come          D. come

    4. If it _______ next week , the crops would be saved.

    A. rains        B. will rains         C. would rain                    D. should rain

    5. If I _______ it, I would do it in a different way.

    A. were to do            B. do            C. had done               D. was to do

    6. Supposing the weather ________ bad, where would you go ?

    A. is                    B. will be                    C. were                D. be

    7. If he had worked harder, he _________.

    A. would succeed                   B. had succeeded

    C. should succeed                   D. would have succeeded

    8. If he ________, he _________ that food.

    A. was warned; would not take

    B. had been warned; would not have taken

    C. would be warned; had not taken

    D. would have been warned; had not taken

    9. If my lawyer _________ here last Saturday, he _______ me from going.

    A. had been; would have prevented

    B. had been; would prevent

    C. were; would prevent

    D. were; would have prevented

    10. If he ______ it, he _______ it.

    A. had seen; could have believed         B. saw; couldn’t believe

    C. saw; couldn’t have believed             D. has seen; had believed

    11. —Do you think the thief entered through the window?

    —No, if he had, I don’t believe, _______ broken the living-room’s window.

    A. he would have                    B. he must have

    C. he had                                 D. should he have

    12. —Did you go swimming last Sunday?

     —No. We would have gone ______ nicer.

    A. if the weather was

    B. would the weather have been

    C. had the weather been

    D. should the weather be

    13. ______ it ______ for your help, I couldn’t have made any progress.

    A. Had; not been                    B. Should; not been

    C. Did; not been                     D. Not; been

    14. _______ today, he would get there by Friday.

    A. Would have left                 B. Was he leaving

    C. Were he to leave          D. If he leaves

    15. It is ordered that a new bridge ______ over the wide river.

    A. should be built            B. would built

    C. will be built                 D. built

     

    [參考答案]

    1—5 DCCDA     6—10 CDBAA

    11—15 DCACA

     

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