• 教學科研
    【皖樅高中學?!?高中英語倒裝句講解
    來源: 發布時間:2015-04-05

    倒裝句分為全部倒裝和部分倒裝

     14.1 倒裝句之全部倒裝

      全部倒裝是只將句子中的謂語動詞全部置于主語之前。此結構通常只用于一般現在時和一般過去時。常見的結構有:

     1) here, there, now, then, thus等副詞置于句首, 謂語動詞常用be, come, go, lie, run等表示來去或狀態的動詞。例如:

       Then came the chairman. 那時總裁來了。

       Here is your letter. 你的信。

     2表示運動方向的副詞或地點狀語置于句首,謂語表示運動的動詞。例如:

       Out rushed a missile from under the bomber. 轟炸機肚底下竄出一枚導彈。

       Ahead sat an old woman. 前面坐著一個老嫗。

      注意:上述全部倒裝的句型結構的主語必須是名詞,如果主語是人稱代詞則不能完全倒裝。例如:

    Here he comes. 他來了?!   ?/p>

    Away they went. 他們走開了。

     

    14.2 倒裝句之部分倒裝

    部分倒裝是指將謂語的一部分如助動詞或情態倒裝至主語之前。如果句子的謂語沒有助動詞或情態動詞,則需添加助動詞do, does或did,并將其置于主語之前。

     1. 句首為否定或半否定的詞語,如no, not, never, seldom, little, hardly, at no time決不, in no way, not until等。例如:

       Never have I seen such a performance. 從未見過如此糟糕的表演。

       Nowhere will you find the answer to this question. 無論如何你不會找到這個問題的答案的。

       Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room. 母親一直到孩子入睡后離開房間。

      當Not until引出主從復合句,主句倒裝,從句不倒裝。注意: 如否定詞不在句首不倒裝。例如:

       I have never seen such a performance.

       ---never have I seen such a performance.

       The mother didn\'t leave the room until the child fell asleep.

        ---not until the child fell asleep the mother did leave the room.

    典型例題  

    1) Why can\'t I smoke here?

       At no time___ in the meeting-room

    A. is smoking permitted  B. smoking is permitted

    C. smoking is it permitted D. does smoking permit

    答案A. 這是一個倒裝問題。當否定詞語置于句首以表示強調時,其句中的主謂須用倒裝結構。這些否定詞包括no, little, hardly, seldom, never, not only, not until等。本題的正常語序是 Smoking is permitted in the meeting-room at no time.

    2) Not until the early years of the 19th century ___ what heat is.

       A. man did know  B. man know  C. didn\'t man know  D. did man know

      答案D.  看到Not until…的句型,我們知道為一倒裝句,答案在C,D 中選一個。

      改寫為正常語序為,Man did not know what heat is until the early years of the 19th. 現在將not提前,后面就不能再用否定了,否則意思就變了。

     

    14.3 以否定詞開頭作部分倒裝

    如 Not only…but also, Hardly/Scarcely…when, No sooner… than等,要倒裝。例如:

      Not only did he refuse the gift, he also severely criticized the sender. 他沒有收下禮物,還狠狠批評了送禮的人。

      Hardly had she gone out when a student came to visit her. 她剛出門,就有個學生來訪。

      No sooner had she gone out than a student came to visit her. 她剛出門,就有個學生來訪。

    典型例題

    No sooner___ than it began to rain heavily.

    A. the game began      B. has the game begun

    C. did the game begin    D. had the game begun

    答案D. 以具有否定意義的副詞放在句首時,一般采用倒裝句(謂語前置)。這類表示否定意義的詞有never, seldom, scarcely, little, few, not, hardly, 以及not only…but (also), no sooner…than, hardly… when scarcely… when 等等。

    注意:只有當Not only… but also連接兩個分句時,才在第一個分句用倒裝結構。如果置于句首的Not only… but also僅連接兩個并列詞語,不可用倒裝結構,如Not only you but also I am fond of music。

     

    14.4 so, neither, nor作部分倒裝

      用這些詞表示\"也\"、\"也不\" 的句子要部分倒裝。例如:    

      Tom can speak French. So can Jack. 湯姆會講法語,杰克也會。

      If you won\'t go, neither will I.你不去,我也不去。

    典型例題

      ---Do you know Jim quarrelled with his brother?

      ---I don\'t know, _____.

      A. nor don\'t I care  B. nor do I care  C. I don\'t care neither  D. I don\'t care also

    答案:B. nor為增補意思\"也不關心\",因此句子應倒裝。A錯在用 don\'t 再次否定,C neither 用法不對且缺乏連詞。D缺乏連詞。

      注意:so引出的句子用以對上文內容加以證實或肯定時,不可用倒裝結構。意為\"的確如此\"。例如:

      Tom asked me to go to play football and so I did. 湯姆邀我去踢球,我去了。

      ---It\'s raining hard.---So it is. 雨下得真大。是呀。

     

    14.5 only在句首倒裝的情況。例如:

      Only in this way, can you learn English well. 只有這樣,你才能學好英語。

      Only after being asked three times did he come to the meeting. 叫了三次,他才來參加會議。

      如果句子為主從復合句,則主句倒裝,從句不倒裝。例如:

      Only when he is seriously ill does he ever stay in bed. 病得狠重時,他才臥床休息。

     

    14.6 as, though 引導的倒裝句

      as / though引導的讓步從句必須將表語或狀語提前(形容詞, 副詞, 分詞, 實義動詞提前)。但需注意:

      1句首名詞不能帶任何冠詞。

      2句首是實義動詞, 其他助動詞放在主語后。如果實義動詞有賓語和狀語,隨實義動詞一起放在主語之前。例如:

       Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily. 他工作很努力,但總不能讓人滿意。

    注意:讓步狀語從句中,有though,although時,后面的主句不能有but,但是 though 和yet可連用。

      

    14.7 其他部分倒裝

    1) so… that 句型中的so 位于句首時,需倒裝。例如:

    So frightened was he that he did not dare to move an inch. 他害怕得很,動也不敢動。

    2) 在某些表示祝愿的句型中。例如:

      May you all be happy. 愿你們都快樂。

    3在虛擬語氣條件句中從句謂語動詞有were, had, should等詞,可將if 省略,把 were, had, should 移到主語之前,采取部分倒裝。例如:

      Were I you, I would try it again. 我是你的話,就再試一次。

    典型例題:

    1)Not until the early years of the 19th century___ what heat is  

    A. man did know  B. man knew  C. didn\'t man know  D. did man know

    答案為D. 否定詞Not在句首,要求用部分倒裝的句子結構。

    2)Not until I began to work ___ how much time I had wasted. 

    A. didn\'t I realize  B. did I realize  C. I didn\'t realize D. I realize

      答案為B。

    3) Do you know Tom bought a new car?

      I don\'t know, ___.

      A. nor don\'t I care  B. nor do I care 

      C. I don\'t care neither D. I don\'t care also

    答案為B. 句中的nor引出部分倒裝結構,表示\"也不\"。由 so, neither, nor引導的倒裝句,表示前一情況的重復出現。其中, so用于肯定句, 而 neither, nor 用在否定句中。

     

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